S e c t o r
Information on the International Conference:
The main objective of the project "Programme for the Promotion of Democracy in West Africa" (PBWA) of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation - the durable installation of democratic structures of the constitutional state and the anchoring of a democratic culture and democratic behaviours in the conscience of the West African populations - is only possible within a framework where the people can live in peace. In other words, the concept of human security is at the base of any sustainable development. Within the framework of this extended definition of security and safety, the integration of the armed and security forces in the democratic societies is essential. In this context, the parliamentary control of the military is an indispensable component of civil and democratic control. Critical for this challenge is the need for creating an effective and transparent relationship between the Parliament, the other bodies of the republican state as well as the institutions of the civil society. In addition, it is also significant that the armed and security forces form an integral part of a democratic state. In other words, the soldier has not only to live his rights and his freedom under the conditions of the daily army services, but also to respect, in the framework of his daily mission, the values defined in the Basic law (constitution) of his country.
The sector "Democratic Control of Armed and Security Forces" aims at assisting the countries covered by this project, i.e. the PBWA. It is also necessary that this sector, as well as the other sectors of PBWA, can contribute to bring together the politicians, the civil society and the men in uniform so that they know each other better, understand themselves mutually so that each one respects the field of the other. Because it is clear that the democratic control of the armed forces will not work if the military institution itself is not democratic.
The Powerpoint Presentation which can be downloaded is entitled "The integration of the armed and security forces in democratic societies/The concept of Innere Führung". It is made up of 12 slides. It must be seen within the framework of the activities of the sector in question and, consequently, represents the main range of topics covered. The model that was selected is that which is applied within the federal armed forces in Germany (Bundeswehr), namely the concept of Innere Führung (Leadership and Civic Education). It can be said that this concept of a moral code of conduct can be found in all the armies of the world. But the concept Innere Führung goes well beyond a simple code of conduct. It was created 10 years after the end of the Second World War. Innere Führung is considered rightly the public image of the armed forces in Germany, and cannot be necessarily applied as a whole to other countries. However, that does not mean that certain aspects cannot be applied elsewhere. It is for this reason that we present these aspects that highlight the model of the "citizen in uniform" which actually reflects the position of the soldier within the democratic state. It combines the free personality, the citizen conscious of his democratic responsibilities (rights and duties) and the soldier ready for engagement.
Moreover, the use of the German example shows us that a non-democratic army (Wehrmacht 1933 - 1945) can be transformed into a democratic army (Bundeswehr since 1955).
In addition, the concept Innere Führung is not something static, i.e. without being open for further developments and changes; on the contrary, as a concept of modern codes of conduct, it is dynamic since it needs to be developed further and to undergo transformations.
Innere Führung is a component of any function of command relating to all the fields of an army and applicable to all levels. However, within the framework of this project, i.e. the PBWA, as a first step, the target groups for the time being are the senior officers and soldiers of higher ranks.
The contents of the Powerpoint presentation:
1. Historical base of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Germany
2. The functioning of Innere Führung
3. Presentation of the contents and structure
It goes without saying that the fact that the presentation is available on an Internet site and can be downloaded does not mean that one can thus cover the subject in an exhaustive way. On the contrary, each page represents more or less one entire topic and requires for a professional explanation of an expert in the field. Normally resources persons use these slides as part of their professional lectures. But why did we then place such materials at the disposal of the public where these conditions are not met? Because we are convinced that in a number of countries covered by the PBWA a situation prevails which requires the use of these tools but where the project and its personnel cannot work.
With a view to provide for a better comprehension of the context, we place at the disposal, in addition, a text entitled "Guidance for Leadership and Civic Education - the concept of Innere Führung (moral and civic formation of the federal armed forces in Germany)"
Moreover, there is a link to an Internet site of the Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces - Geneva (DCAF) where one finds a project (text) of a "Model law on the parliamentary control of the military".
The materials used here are based on some German texts of the Center Innere Führung, Koblenz/Germany, which is responsible for the moral and civic formation for the federal armed forces in Germany.
|Zentrum Innere Führung, Koblenz/Allemagne
Interlocuteur: Lutz OBERHAUS, Kapitän zur See;
Technical support and general responsibility:Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (KAS),